Links and Additional Footnotes (indicated with captial letters) provided by David Ratcliffe
Glossary of Open Politics
from The Road to 9/11: Wealth, Empire, and the Future of America
by Peter Dale Scott,
University of California Press in Berkeley, 2007, pp. 267-271
archival history A chronological record of events, as reconstructed by archival historians from public records; as opposed to deep history, which is a chronology of events concerning which the public records are often either falsified or nonexistent.
cabal A network, often of cliques, operating within or across a broad social and bureaucratic base with an agenda not widely known or shared. According to many dictionary definitions, a cabal is a group of persons secretly united to bring about a change or overthrow of government. But in the deep state cabals can also operate within the status quo to sustain top-down rule, including interventions from the overworld.
clique A small group of like-minded people, operating independently within a larger social organization. Before the Iraq war the neocons in the Bush administration represented a clique; the faction preparing secretly for war (which included both neocons and veterans of the international petroleum industry, like Dick Cheney and Condoleezza Rice) represented a larger and more widespread cabal.
continuity of government (COG) A term of art for secret arrangements for command and control in the event of an emergency.
deep history See archival history.
deep politics All those political practices and arrangements, deliberate or not, that are usually repressed in public discourse rather than acknowledged.
A term from Turkey,[A]
where it is used to refer to a closed network said to be more
powerful than the public state. The deep state engages
in false-flag violence, is organized by the military and
intelligence apparatus, and involves their links to organized
dual power See power.
dual state A state in which one can distinguish between a public state and a top-down deep state. Most developed states exhibit this duality but to varying degrees. In America the duality of the state has become more and more acute since World War II.
globalization The trend toward a more unified world at two levels: (1) top-down globalization, a system imposed from above on peoples and cultures; and (2) bottom-up globalization, a geographic expansion of people-to-people contacts producing a more international civil society and community. Top-down globalization, if not balanced by bottom-up globalization, will result in increasing polarization.
Islamism A political Muslim movement with origins in the late nineteenth century, dedicated to jihad, or struggle for the political unification and purification of Islam, and restoration of its lost territories such as Spain. Often called Islamic fundamentalism but its relation to the fundamentals of Islam is problematic. Its main sources are Wahhabism in Saudi Arabia and Deobandism in the Indian subcontinent.
meta-group A private group collaborating with and capable of modifying governmental policy, particularly (but not exclusively) with respect to the international drug traffic. Over time meta-groups have tended to become more powerful, more highly organized, and more independent of their government connections.
milieu A location (not necessarily geographical) where private deals can be made. Relatively unimportant to proceedings and institutions of the public state, restricted milieus are of greater relevance to operations of the deep state.
order There are two clusters of dictionary definitions of order, both relevant: (1) top-down or coercive order, meaning “a command or direction” (or their results); and (2) public or participatory order, meaning “a condition of arrangement among component parts, such that proper functioning or appearance is achieved.”
overworld That realm of wealthy or privileged society that,
although not formally authorized or institutionalized, is the
scene of successful influence of government by private power. It
includes both (1) those whose influence is through their wealth,
administered personally or more typically through tax-free
foundations and their sponsored projects, and (2) the first
group's representatives. The term should be distinguished from
Frederick Lundberg's “superrich,” the sixty wealthiest families
that he wrongly predicted in his 1967 book Sixty Families would
continue to dominate America both as a class and as a “government
of money.” The recent Forbes annual lists of the four hundred
richest Americans shows that Lundberg's prediction was wrong on
both counts: his richest inheritors of 1967 are mostly not the
richest today, and today's richest are not necessarily those
projecting their wealth into political power. The overworld is
not a class but a category.
parallel government (or shadow government) A second government established in times of crisis to override or even replace the official government of the public state.
paranoia The irrational drive toward dominance that is motivated not by rational self-interest but by fear of being surpassed by a competitor. A paradox of civilization is that, as relative power increases (along with expansion and exposure), so does paranoia. The dominance over the public state by the deep state is based on (and also generates) paranoia. The paradox that power increases paranoia is seen within states as well as between them. It is not restricted to so-called totalitarian states.
paranoia, bureaucratic The dominance of bureaucratic policy planning by worst-case scenarios, calling for maximized bureaucratic responses and budgets. This leads to the paranoid style in bureaucratic politics.
parapolitics This term has two definitions: (1) “a system or practice of politics in which accountability is consciously diminished,” and (2) the intellectual study of parapolitical interactions between public states and other forms of organized nonviolence (or parastates): covert agencies, mafias, and so on.
parastates Structurally organized violence (in the form of covert agencies, mafias, revolutionary movements, and so on) with some but not all the recognizable features of a state.
power There are two definitions of power, both relevant: (1) top-down, coercive, or closed power, meaning “the ability or official capacity to exercise control; authority”; and (2) public, cooperative, or open power, meaning “the might of a nation, political organization, or similar group.” This notion of dual power is reflected in Gandhi’s distinction between duragraha (“obtained by the fear of punishment”) and satyagraha (obtained “by acts of love”). Jonathan Schell paraphrases this as the distinction between coercive and cooperative power: “Power is cooperative when it springs from action in concert of people who willingly agree with one another and is coercive when it springs from the threat or use of force. Both kinds of power are real. . . . Yet the two are antithetical.” This antithesis is embodied in the tension in the dual state between the deep state and the public state. The tension between top-down and public power exists to some degree in all developed states. It becomes more acute with increased income disparity: polarization of wealth or economic power is inevitably accompanied by polarization of political power.[D]
prevailable will of the people That potential for solidarity that, instead of being checked by top-down repression, can actually be awakened and reinforced by it. It thus becomes the emerging sanction for a generally accepted social or political change. The more common term “will of the people,” a refurbishing of Rousseau's “general will,” is often invoked as the ultimate sanction of a generally accepted decision. However, even if not a total abstraction, the term has little or no meaning at the time of a major controversy; the “public will” must be established by events, not passively defined in advance of them. The “will of the majority” is an even more dangerous phrase; the opinions of majorities are often superficial and fickle, and destined not to prevail. (The Vietnam and Iraq wars are examples where the momentary will of the majority proved not to be the prevailable will.) The prevailable will can be said to be latent in a political crisis but not established or proven until its outcome. In the case of abolishing slavery in America, for example, the resolution took many decades, but it is hard to imagine any other prevailable outcome.
realism There are two prevailing and conflicting notions of political realism: (1) realpolitik, defined as “a usually expansionist national policy, having as its sole principle the advancement of the national interest”; and (2) what I call visionary realism, a vision of a public order conforming to the prevailable will of the people. I consider the latter more realistic than the former, because it can see more clearly the dialectical consequences of expansion and overstretch.
second-level strategy A strategy of first strengthening civil society as a condition for social change.
security state See state.
soft power versus open power Soft power, as defined by Joseph Nye, works (in distinction to military and economic superiority) by persuasion; it is an “ability . . . that shapes the preferences of others” that “tends to be associated with intangible power resources such as an attractive culture, ideology, and institutions.” Soft power or soft politics puts more emphasis on the persuasive technique; open power or open politics, on a participatory process or result.
state There are two definitions, both relevant, both deriving
ultimately from Machiavelli. What is being discussed here are
dictionary definitions, which I culled and combined from a number
of dictionaries: (1) a system of organized power controlling a
society; and (2) a politically organized body of people under a
single government. These correspond to two overlapping systems of
statal institutions: the deep state
(or security state) and the public state. The second
interacts with and is responsive to civil society, especially in
a democracy; the first is immune to shifts in public opinion.
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