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Native American Political Systems
and the Evolution of Democracy:

An Annotated Bibliography

Bruce E. Johansen
Professor of Communication and
Native American Studies
University of Nebraska at Omaha


Books, Scholarly, and Specialty Journals

_________. [Review of Oren Lyons, et. al., Exiled in the Land of the Free (1992)] Publisher's Weekly, September 14, 1992, p. 92.

Altherr, Thomas. [Review, Weatherford, Indian Givers, 1988.] American Indian Quarterly, Spring, 1992.

Axtell, James. Beyond 1492: Encounters in Colonial North America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Bardes, Barbara, et. al. American Government and Politics Today: The Essentials. West Publishing Co., 1992.

Barreiro, Jose, ed. Indian Roots of American Democracy. Ithaca, N.Y.: Akwe:kon Press/Cornell University, 1992.

Berman, Paul, ed. Debating P.C.: The Controversy Over Political Correctness. New York: Laurel Books/Dell, 1992.

(*) Berner, Robert. "American Myth: Old, New, Yet Untold." Genre: Forms of Discourse & Culture 25:4 (Winter, 1992), pp. 377-389.

Bonvillian, Nancy. Hiawatha: Founder of the Iroquois Confederacy. New York: Chelsea House, 1992.

Churchill, Ward. Fantasies of the Master Race: Literature, Cinema, and the Colonization of American Indians. Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1992.

Clark, Joe. "Excerpts From Constitutional Minister Joe Clark's Address to Canada's First Peoples Conference." Akwesasne Notes 23:4(Fall, 1992), pp. 17-18.

(*) Delgado, Richard. "Rodrigo's Chronicle." Yale Law Journal 101 (Spring, 1992), p. 1357.

Deloria, Vine, Jr. "Comfortable Fictions and the Struggle for Turf: An Essay Review of [James Clifton's] The Invented Indian: Cultural Fictions and Government Policies. [New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 1990]. American Indian Quarterly, Summer, 1992, pp. 397-410.

(*) Hoeveler, J. David, Jr. "Original Intent and the Politics of Republicanism." Marquette Law Review 75 (Summer, 1992), p. 863. Jacobs, Wilbur. "The American Indian Legacy of Freedom and Liberty." American Indian Culture & Research Journal 16:4(1992), pp. 185-193.

Jaimes, M. Annette. The State of Native America: Genocide, Colonization, and Resistance. Boston: South End Press, 1992.

James, Jewell Praying Wolf, in Kurt Russo, ed., Our People, Our Land. Bellingham, Washington: Lummi Tribe and Kluckhohn Center, 1992, pp. 32-35.

Johansen. "Remembering the Forgotten Founders." in Kurt Russo, ed., Our People, Our Land: Perspectives on the Columbus Quincentenary. Bellingham, WA: Lummi Tribe and Kluckhohn Center, 1992.

Johansen, Bruce E. "Commentary." Akwe:kon Journal 9:4(Winter, 1992), p. 3.

Landsman, Gail H. "The 'Other' as Political Symbol: Images of the Indians in the Woman Suffrage Movement," Ethnohistory 39:1(Summer, 1992), pp. 247-284.

Landsman, Gail. H., and Sara Ciborski. "Representation and Politics: Contested Histories of the Iroquois." Cultural Anthropology 7(4) November, 1992, pp. 425-447.

(*) Leacock, Eleanor. "Women's Status in Egalitarian Society: Implications for Social Evolution." Current Anthropology, Feb., 1992 (Vol. 33, No. 1), pagination not available.

Lewis, Martin W. Green Delusions: An Environmentalist Critique of Radical Environmentalism. Durham, N. C.: Duke University Press, 1992.

Limbaugh, Rush. The Way Things Ought to Be. New York: Pocket Books, 1992.

Lyons, Oren, John Mohawk, Vine Deloria, Jr., Laurence Hauptman, Howard Berman, Donald Grinde, Jr., Curtis Berkey and Robert Venables. Exiled in the Land of the Free: Democracy, Indian Nations, and the U.S. Constitution. Santa Fe, N.M.: Clear Light Publishers, 1992.

(*) Malloy, Robin Paul. "Letters From the Longhouse: Law, Economics, and Native American Values." Wisconsin Law Review (September/October, 1992), p. 1569.

Maybury-Lewis, David. Millennium: Tribal Wisdom and the Modern World. New York: Viking, 1992.

O'Donnell, J. H., III. [Review of Exemplar of Liberty (1991)]. CHOICE, July/August 1992, p. 1745.

Oshinsky, David M. [Review: Schlesinger, Disuniting of America] The New Leader, March 9, 1992, p. 19.

Royal, Robert. 1492 and All That. Washington, D.C.: Ethics and Public Policy Center, 1992.

Schlesinger, Arthur M, Jr. The Disuniting of America. New York: W.W. Norton, 1992.

Stannard, David E. American Holocaust: Columbus and the Conquest of the New World. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Tack, Alan, review of Exemplar of Liberty [1991], in Native Peoples [Phoenix], Summer, 1992, p. 72.

Trosper, Ronald L. "Mind Sets and Economic Development on Indian Reservations," in Stephen Cornell and Joseph P. Kalt, eds., What Can Tribes Do? Strategies and Institutions in American Indian Economic Development. Los Angeles: UCLA American Indian Studies Center, 1992.

Wagner, Sally Roesch. "the Iroquois Influence on Women's Rights." Akwe:kon Journal (formerly Northeast Indian Quarterly) 9:1(Spring, 1992), pp. 4-15.

(*) Weintraub, David. "Iroquois Influence in the Founding of the American Nation." Court Review 29 (Winter, 1992) pp. 17-32.

Wolfson, Evelyn. The Iroquois: People of the Northeast. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1992.

Wright, Ronald. Stolen Continents: The Americas Through Indian Eyes Since 1492. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1992.

Popular Magazines and Newspapers

__________. "The Archaeologists Discover the Last of the Philistines." Washington Times, October 3, 1992, p. B-2.

(*) __________. "Feminist Connection to Iroquois Topic of SUNY Oswego Program." The Valley News, November 9, 1992, p. 15. __________. "Manhattan Neighborhoods." Newsday, January 13, 1992, p. 21.

Associated Press, in Syracuse Post-Standard, January 12, 1992.

Beaton, Danny, and Lindsey Mitchell. "We Are the People Columbus Discovered." Toronto Star, January 3, 1992, p. A-17.

Bosveld, Jane. "Forgotten Founders: Did the Great Law of Peace, the Constitution of the Iroquois Nation, Help Shape Democracy and Federalism?" Omni, Feb., 1992, p. 33.

Brookhiser, Richard. [Review of Schlesinger, Disuniting of America] National Review, May 11, 1992, p. 49.

Buchanan, Patrick J. "America's Cultural War." Atlanta Constitution, September 15, 1992, p. A-15. See also: Patrick Buchanan. "Yes, A Cultural War is Raging...." St. Louis Post-Dispatch, September 13, 1992, p. 3-B.

(*) Cojean, Annick. "Desarrois Americains IX. Historie: du 'Melting Pot' au Saladier." Le Monde (Paris) October 30, 1992, n.p.

Dahl, Katherine. [Review, Lyons, et. al., Exiled in the Land of the Free(1992)]. Library Journal, vol. 117, No. 19 (November 15, 1992), p. 88.

Diakiw, Jerry. "Our Culture's Native Roots." Toronto Star, July 21, 1992, p. A-19.

Doxtater, Mike. "The Constitution of the Five Nations." The Indigenous Voices (Hamilton, Ontario, Canada), August/September, 1992, pp. 1, 3.

Evans-Pritchard, Ambrose. "Down with DWEMs -- America's New Apartheid." The Daily Telegraph [London], August 30, 1992, Books, p. 15.

Galbraith, Jane. "Costner to Bring Indian History to CBS in 1994..." Los Angeles Times, July 30, 1992, p. F-1 [Entertainment].

Harjo, Suzan Shown. "Columbus: Discoverer or Despoiler? American Indians Still Reeling from Genocide." Dallas Morning News, October 11, 1992, p. 1-J.

Harris, John F. "Arthur Schlesinger's Education in Controversy..." [Review of Schlesinger, Disuniting America] Washington Post, June 1, 1992, p. B-1.

(*) Hornback, Bert G. "The Paradise He and His Followers Destroyed." Louisville Courier-Journal, October 11, 1992, p. 1-D.

Hume, Stephen. "Bigotry Wrapped in Nationalist Banner." Vancouver Sun, February 21, 1992, p. A-13.

(*) Innerst, Carol. "Cut and Paste History: 'PC' Texts Drop Some Big Names." Washington Times, April 26, 1992, p. A-1.

Jensen, Erik M. "Iroquois Didn't Write U.S. Constitution." Cleveland Plain Dealer, August 1, 1992.

Johnson, Gordon K. "Constitution is Inspired." [Letter to the editor] Calgary Herald, October 18, 1992, p. A-7.

Kaye, Mary. "The Road to Beauty." Sassy, October, 1992, pp. 76-78, 90-91.

Kermode, Frank. "Whose History is Bunk." New York Times, February 23, 1992, Section 7, Page 3 [Book Review].

Knox, Bernard. "The Oldest Dead White European Males: Ancient Greece." The New Republic 206:21 (May 25, 1992), p. 27.

Lunner, Chet. "A Primer On the First People." [Gannett News Service] October 12, 1992.

Mander, Jerry. "Wisdom from Other Cultures." [Review of Maybury-Lewis, Millennium, 1992] San Francisco Chronicle, April 26, 1992, Sunday Review, p. 3.

Mander, Jerry. [Review of Nabokov, Native American Testimony] The Nation, April 6, 1992, p. 461.

(*) Maybury-Lewis, David. "Tribal Wisdom: Is it Too Late to Reclaim the Benefits of Tribal Living?" Utne Reader, July/August 1992, pp. 68-95.

McGhee, Robert. "Time to Put the Facts Ahead of the Myths About Columbus." Ottawa Citizen, October 14, 1992, p. A-11.

Menard, Louis. "School Daze: Multicultural Education." Harper's Bazaar, September, 1992, p. 380.

Mitchell, Peter. "A Conversation With Buchanan." Orlando Sentinel, February 27, 1992, p. A-5.

Nells, Karen. "PEF Officials Confront Cuomo at State Museum," Albany Times-Union, October 6, 1992, pp. B-1, B-6.

Rethinking Schools, special issue, Rethinking Columbus, n.d.

Shah, Reena. "When the Melting Pot Breaks Down." [Review of Schlesinger, Disuniting of America] St. Petersburg [Florida] Times, April 5, 1992, p. 4-D.

Steele, Mike. "Heart of the Beast Offers Witty, Instructive Version of History of America." Minneapolis Star-Tribune, February 3, 1992, p. 5-E.

Stoute, Lenny. "Buffy's Back With First Album in 15 Years." Toronto Star, March 17, 1992, p. C-4.

Smith, Robert L. "Democracy, Indian Style." Syracuse Post-Standard, Dec. 28, 1992, pp. B-1, B-5.

Switzer, Norah L. "Parliamentary Democracy." [Letter to the editor] Los Angeles Times, August 25, 1992, p. B-6.

Tallman, Valerie. "Tribal Nations Air Concerns Before the United Nations." Indian Country Today, December 24, 1992.

Tamblyn, Ian. "Country's Economic Ills Cited as Reason for Rejection of Deal." Calgary Herald, October 29, 1992, p. A-5.

Wandell, Grace and Jack. "Viewpoint: Native Americans Have Rich Lore." Albany Times-Union, March 31, 1992, p. A-10.

White, Timothy. "Native American Song, Then and Now." Billboard, May 9, 1992, p. 5.

Wittstock, Laura Waterman. "A Good Ol' (Native) American Civics Test." Fellowship, September, 1992, pp. 9, 17.

Scholarly Meetings and Public Forums

[January, 1992] University of Nebraska at Omaha. Johansen lectured on the debate surrounding the "influence issue" on the occasion of his promotion to full professor, at a reception hosted by the UNO College of Arts & Sciences.

[April, 1992] Four to five thousand citizens of Kansas City observed Earth Day by assembling a very large mosaic of materials to be recycled in the shape of a turtle, after the Iroquois reference to North America as "Turtle Island." The mosaic, which occupied the space of roughly a football field, was constructed in a Kansas City park, and dismantled the next day. Information on Iroquois life, including Constitutional influence, was distributed at the event. Organizer Marty Kraft provided an aerial photograph of the turtle mosaic with participants circling it.

[April, 1992] Grinde and Johansen presented papers based on Exemplar of Liberty at the Organization of American Historians annual meeting in Chicago.

[October, 1992] Johansen presented a paper, "Roger Williams, 'Soul Liberty,' and the Native Peoples of New England," at a conference called to air Native American viewpoints on the Columbian Quincentenary, University of California at Los Angeles.

Other Items

  1. A fund-raising mailing by the Native American Rights Fund observed Native American contributions to American concepts of government.

  2. Alexander Sudak reported from Poland in September that he had completed a Polish translation of Exemplar of Liberty, and that he had forwarded the manuscript to the Polish-American Historical Society in Warsaw for publication. Sudak said he plans to translate the book into Russian as well.

  3. Permission request to utilize Johansen and Grinde, "The Debate Regarding Precedents" [1990] for a book of readings compiled by Thomas Kavanagh, George Washington University, for Sociology 139. January 24.

  4. Oyons, an Onondaga member of the Iroquois Grand Council, appeared on "Bill Moyers' Journal" (Public Broadcasting Service), July 4, 1992; he discussed Iroquois ecological and political traditions, and asserted Iroquoian precedents for United States government.

  5. William A. Starna to George M. Gregory, Supervisor of Educational Programs, New York State Department of Education, November 20, 1992. Cover letter and 27-page critique of Haudenosaunee: Past, Present, Future, the Iroquois-composed curriculum guide that has become a flashpoint for disagreement over the "influence" issue. Starna [see also: 1990, 1991] says the second draft of the guide is "as badly flawed as the first." "Most troublesome," writes Starna "is the State Education Department's complete failure to address the erroneous views of American history, legal issues, anthropology and Indian-White relations presented in the guide. The most egregious of these is the bankrupt claim of Iroquois influence on the development and design of the United States Constitution." Starna asserts that Grinde and Johansen are "individuals who have a vested interest in seeing their own peculiar views of history presented in the guide." Sally Roesch Wagner [see 1992 and earlier], et. al. are named as fellow-travelers of Grinde, Johansen, and "traditional Iroquois." Starna demands that his name be taken off the list of reviewers, and that passages describing "this constitution nonsense" be removed from the guide. Files also contain a chronology of developments related to the curriculum guide (September 1986 through December 1992), compiled by John Kahionhes Fadden.

  6. James W. Herrick, "Iroquois League," Grolier Electronic Publishing. This appears to be an entry printout from a CD-ROM encyclopedia package. It provides an overview of the Iroquois Confederacy and its founding, and ends: "Some historians claim that the highly democratic political organization of the Iroquois League may have served as a model for the compilers of the United States Constitution."

  7. Transcript, "Notes for a Speech by the Right Honorable Joe Clark...President of the Privy Council and Minister Responsible for Constitutional Affairs." [At the annual meeting of the Canadian Manufacturer's Association] Toronto, June 12, 1992. In LEXIS. Clark addresses the problems of Canadian nationhood as they impinge on the present constitutional debate in that country. Clark asserts the right and ability of Native Canadians to govern themselves, pointing to the Iroquois: "Aboriginal self-government...was here when Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin looked to the Iroquois Confederacy when they were designing the American Constitution."

  8. (*) Videotape, "More Than Bows and Arrows," one hour, described in catalogue of Insight Media, New York City: "This award-winning documentary illuminates the impact that Native Americans have had on the political, social, and cultural development of the U. S. Narrated by N. Scott Momaday, it examines how government, agriculture and food, transportation, architecture, science and technology, the arts, medicine, and language all have benefitted from Native American contributions."

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